Translated by Emma Degorge
At this age, according to Freud, the child reaches the « anal stage », characterized by the discovery of the control and the hold he possesses on others During all the anal stage, the acquisition of the muscular command of the child sets up. He begins to fling objects away or keep them. Thus he brings into play his body limitations. He starts confronting against his relatives.
Around 15 months, he is able to kneel, squat, switch to the standing position to the sitting one without any help or material support. However, he still often fells down. He develops his manual preciseness and accuracy : he holds smaller objets (spoons or pencils for instance), he points them accuratly. Additionally, he can use his both hands in a combined way. The child starts doodling. He can piles two cubes up, clumsily turn pages of a book. Eventually, his hearing develops, and he differentiates a wider range of sounds.
In terms of comprehension, the child understands short sentences and can respond to a mere order such as : « come and say hello » for example.
It is important to use negative responses at this age in the best interest of the child. It enables him to integrate a strict family setting and precise rules. This environment allows him to be reassured and to cope his emotions.
At 18 months, he is able to walk and begins to run. He shoots in a ball but can loose his balance meanwhile. He climbs the stairs on all fours and jumps up with his feet apart. He throws a ball while standing with an unstable balance.
He can hold a pencil neatly enough to reproduce a line when drawing. His doodles are jerky.
He starts taking his shoes and socks of alone, and he recognizes himself into the mirror.
He has a vocabulary of seven to ten words. He is able to assemble two words and pronounces sentences with basic words such as : « Where is it ? ». He can shows two or three parts of his body and enjoys imitation. Finally, he appreciates nursery rhymes, stories, playing with puppets...